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Mammoth Cave National Park, Union Light Road, Edmonson County, Kentucky, 42259, United States of America (37.18417 -86.12299)
The upper sandstone member is known as the Big Clifty Sandstone. Thin, sparse layers of limestone interspersed within the sandstones give rise to an epikarstic zone, in which tiny conduits (cave passages too small to enter) are dissolved by the natural acidity of groundwater. The epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges. The resurgent water from these springs typically flows briefly on the surface before sinking underground again at elevation of the contact between the sandstone caprock and the underlying massive limestones. It is in these underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed.
Riverside Gardens, Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky, 40216, United States of America (38.19229 -85.87246)
Coordinates: 38.17229 -85.89246 38.21229 -85.85246 - Minimum elevation: 400 ft - Maximum elevation: 985 ft - Average elevation: 489 ft
Highgate Springs, Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky, 40218, United States of America (38.21516 -85.64742)
Coordinates: 38.19516 -85.66742 38.23516 -85.62742 - Minimum elevation: 465 ft - Maximum elevation: 660 ft - Average elevation: 538 ft