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Kohala, Hawaiʻi County, Hawaii, United States of America (20.07499 -155.71869)
In Kohala, the numerous dikes near the summit inhibit groundwater from seeping downslope to the northeast, where it naturally wants to go. Rather, the Kohala dike complex guides it northwest or southeast, down the axis of the rift zones, just like the surface water. On the other hand, the three smaller valleys between the large ones - Honopue, Honokea, and Honokane Iki - as well as the many smaller gulches which are not yet valleys, are deprived of groundwater by the orientation of the rift zone and its dikes. Without the large amount of water that is received by the bigger valleys, these valleys grow far more slowly. Due to its topography as essentially a flat crater floor surrounded by cones and fault scarps, the main caldera is affected relatively little by erosion from water.
Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawaiʻi County, Hawaii, 96718, United States of America (19.30319 -155.24050)
Coordinates: 19.05835 -155.79837 19.54759 -155.01583 - Minimum elevation: 0 m - Maximum elevation: 4,183 m - Average elevation: 492 m
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park/Kahuku Ranch Cooperative Nene Sanctuary, Old Hawaiian Trl, Kailua-Kona, Hawaiʻi County, Hawaii, United States of America (19.27109 -155.59683)
Coordinates: 19.17875 -155.69925 19.36474 -155.51722 - Minimum elevation: 0 m - Maximum elevation: 4,025 m - Average elevation: 1,722 m